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Title: Theory and Practice Issues in Pre-service Teacher Education: Discourse in Sweden and Turkey for the Latest Teacher Education Reforms
Authors: Kizildag, A
Eriksson, A
Department: University of Borås. School of Education and Behavioural Sciences
Issue Date: 2011
Citation: Paper presented at ECER in Berlin, Germany, 13-16 september 2011.
Media type: text
Publication type: conference paper, peer reviewed
Subject Category: Subject categories::Social Sciences::Social Sciences::Pedagogy
Strategic Research Area: Teacher education and education work
Abstract: Constant global social and economic changes cause education systems to change, including also teacher training. Education reforms cannot be consideredwithout modifications for teacher training systems. In other words, the adjustments in education systems are also reflected in the Teacher Education Reforms across countries.Therefore, this study aims to explore teacher education policies in twodifferent countries, Sweden and Turkey, via the analysis of the educationreforms. Teacher training has been modified throughout the years in the twocountries in relation to the gap between theory and practice, which has formeda discourse around which the reforms have developed. While Sweden was undergoing reform acts in 1985, 2001 and 2010, Turkey went through a similar process in 1997 and 2006. The reforms are analyzed in relation to the reasons, structural and substantive changes and expected outcomes. What were the causes for a reform? What was changed? What was offered instead? What outcomes were expected? These are the questions that form the core for the analysis in the paper. These issues are interrelated with theory and practice relations, teacher quality, and quality assurances. We have used critical discourse analysis (Chouliaraki & Farclough, 1999;Fairclough, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2006) both theoretically and methodologically. In terms of theoretical assumptions, intertextuality and interdiscursivity are used as analytical screens towards which the discourse about the relation between theory and practice in the process of policy text production is analysed. The concept of discourse is used in the way Fairclough (1992) defines it, as a form of language use and as a kind of social practice, which means that discourse contains the whole process of social interaction. For instance, the policy texts that are analysed represent a part of this process only, though the process also includes the conditions for policy text production and the process of interpretation. The paper compares and contrasts teacher education policies in terms of theory and practice relations within recent decades in two countries. However, the similarities and differences are also evaluated within a larger context, that of teacher education policies in the EU. Method The study adopts the critical discourse analysis of Fairclough (Chouliaraki &Farclough, 1999; Fairclough, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2006). The critical discourse analysis contributes to an analytical model for analysis of the policy text production process on the levels policy as text, discursive practice and social practice. Using Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis makes it possible to describe and compare the discourse around theory and practice in relation to power and ideology in two countries. The corpus of the study is limited to a set of key papers, such as policy documents, authority reports like green/white papers and governmental proposals for the latest two Teacher Education reforms:1997 and 2006 for Turkey and 1985, 2001 and 2010 for Sweden. The further documents include academic policy articles and reviews written specifically about the reforms. The necessity for including these texts comes from the difference between the strategies followed in the act of preparing and executing reforms. Turkey did not follow a similar framed policy-making for the teacher education reforms in question, unlike Sweden where government proposal had been voted in the parliament. Expected Outcomes We expect three interrelated outcomes from this piece of study: 1. Theory and practice relations and the evolution of this relationship throughout teacher educations reforms in Sweden and Turkey within the recent decades will be described in-depth. 2. The reasons and outcomes of the teacher education reforms in both countries will be compared and contrasted. 3. One can see the country profiles on education and teacher education throughout the reforms in question. References Chouliariki, L. & Fairclough, N. (1999). Discourse in late modernity: Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis.Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: the critical study of language. London: Longman. Fairclough, N. (2000). Discourse, social theory, and social research: The discourse of welfare reform. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(2), pp.163-95. Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge. Fairclough, N. (2006). Language and globalization. New York: Routledge. Kavak, Y., Aydin, A.& Akbaba Altun, S. (2007). Ögretmen Yetistirme ve Egitim Fakulteleri (1982-2007) [Teacher Education and Education Faculties (1982- 2007)]. Ankara, Turkey: Yuksekogretim Kurulu Yayini, 2007-5. Proposition(1984/85: 122). Regeringens proposition1984/85:122 om lärarutbildning för grundskolan m.m. Stockholm: Riksdagen1985. Proposition(1999/2000:135). En förnyadlärarutbildning. Stockholm: Regeringen. Proposition (2009/10:89).Bäst i klassen – en ny lärarutbildning.Stockholm: Regeringen.
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